Three Rs Microsite

Testing & Production



Animal-based regulatory testing is typically required by governments to ensure the safety of pharmaceutical and chemical products and medical devices. There are some limitations to implementing the Three Rs in commercially-directed testing, including:

  • the legal obligation to use animals in testing to ensure that products are safe
  • the production of a toxic effect in the animal is integral to testing protocols
  • limited access to experimental data produced in a commercial setting (for reasons of confidentiality)

These requirements may restrict how test procedures can be modified in response to Three Rs concerns. In addition, limited access to data may contribute to duplication of animal experiments and exclude useful information from comprehensive assessments of how animals are functioning as predictive models for humans.

However, there are still many opportunities to implement the Three Rs in toxicity testing, including use of humane endpoints, and in testing of biologics and vaccines.

In addition, many approved alternative test methods currently exist, and these have often undergone scientific validation.

Quick Links