Three Rs Microsite


Wildlife Research

Wildlife Research

Wildlife includes free ranging and captive wild vertebrates, such as amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and mammals, all introduced and indigenous species and feral domestic animals. Wildlife research includes studies that focus on different levels of organization from individual animals to ecosystems.

The Three Rs concept, although initially conceived for laboratory-based animal research, is also a part of wildlife research ethics.

Wildlife and Animal Welfare

Wildlife research has unique animal welfare challenges. Therefore applying the Three Rs in wildlife studies of higher levels of organization (such as populations and communities) is challenging because research goals may prioritize the collection of data from many animals over the welfare of individual animals.


Specific Wildlife Three Rs Strategies

Specific Wildlife Three Rs Strategies have been developed by experts.

Other resources are also available, including the Wildlife Research Standards & Best Practices, Three Rs Search Guide and the Animal Index.

Reduction can be achieved with optimal experimental design and consultation with a statistician may be helpful.

Relevant Resources

Wildlife Research Ethics arrow7
Wildlife Research Standards & Best Practices arrow8
Evaluation of Wildlife Research Devices arrow9
Evaluation of Wildlife Research Methods arrow9

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