Choice of animal species or model
Refinement alternatives refers to the modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress, and to enhance the welfare of an animal used in science from the time it is born until its death.
The entire lifetime experience of the animal should be considered, not just the animal's experience during an experiment.
Refinement alternatives improve animal welfare and can also improve the quality of research findings. For example, the experience of pain and other distress is likely to result in physiological changes that may increase the variability of experimental results and/or decrease their validity.
Additional refinement information can be found in Care and Techniques.