Refinement alternatives often include improvements to housing. Optimal housing allows animals to perform the widest possible range of species-typical behaviour. Different species have different requirements, and knowledge of natural history and behaviour is needed to provide appropriate accommodation. Other factors include the animal's age, health and reproductive status, and the impact of scientific procedures.

Consideration should be given to the quantity of space provided. Emphasis should be placed on exceeding minimum requirements.

Implementing refinement alternatives also requires regular review of housing and husbandry practices to ensure continual improvements are made.

This section has been adapted from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) website.

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