Animal-based regulatory testing is typically required by governments to ensure the safety of pharmaceutical and chemical products and medical devices. There are some limitations to implementing the Three Rs in commercially-directed testing, including:
These requirements may restrict how test procedures can be modified in response to Three Rs concerns. In addition, limited access to data may contribute to duplication of animal experiments and exclude useful information from comprehensive assessments of how animals are functioning as predictive models for humans.
For more information on testing and the Three Rs, the following resources may be useful.