Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential damage, or described in terms of such damage. Animals must not be subjected to unnecessary pain.
Successful alleviation, minimization or prevention of pain in laboratory animals is critically dependent upon:
When planning an experiment, investigators should consult with their institution's clinical veterinarian about using pain control measures in their research protocols.
Ways to implement pain-controlling refinements into animal use protocols include:
This section was adapted from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) website.