Care & Techniques
The third ‘R’, Refinement, is essential to consider for people who are caring for animals used in science and/or carrying out scientific procedures on animals. Animal welfare can be improved by considering refinements to:
Similarly, refinements to pain management and humane killing can assist in minimizing pain and distress. Implementation of refinements to the care and use of animals is also informed by on-going welfare assessments.
Refinements by Types of Animals
Many refinements are specific to certain types of animals. Information from this site is organized by animal type in the Animal Index.