Three Rs Microsite

Care & Techniques

Care & Techniques

Care & Techniques

The third ‘R’, Refinement, is essential to consider for people who are caring for animals used in science and/or carrying out scientific procedures on animals. Animal welfare can be improved by considering refinements to:

Similarly, refinements to pain management and humane killing can assist in minimizing pain and distress. Implementation of refinements to the care and use of animals is also informed by on-going welfare assessments.

Refinements by Types of Animals

Many refinements are specific to certain types of animals. Information from this site is organized by animal type in the Animal Index.

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