Three Rs Microsite

Your link to information on replacement,
reduction and refinement alternatives
for animal use in science


Three Rs The Three Rs

Replacing animals in science.

Reducing the number of animals used

Refining care and procedures to minimize pain and distress

Learn more
Upcoming EventsUpcoming Events
CALAS 55th Annual Symposium

Toronto, ON
June 11-14, 2016


Focus on severe suffering
An international conference hosted by the RSPCA.

Brussels, Belgium
June 16-17, 2016

Click here to register.


10th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Science

The 3Rs in Action
Seattle, WA
September 2017

News & Publications

May 2, 2016

2017 Science-based Refinement Awards

Attention veterinarians, lab technicians, animal technicians, and all who work with laboratory animals: The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) now is accepting proposals for the 2017 Science-based Refinement Awards.

Deadline is November 18, 2016.


April 25, 2016

ARDF funding

The Alternatives Research and Development Foundation (ARDF) will award up to $40,000 to individual projects with the potential to significantly replace or reduce laboratory animals in research. This year, preference will be given to projects that use pathway-based approaches as exemplified by the 2007 National Academy of Sciences report, Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Applications must be received by Monday, May 2.

Guidelines and application form available here.


April 18, 2016

Ten practical realities for institutional animal care and use committees when evaluating protocols dealing with fish in the field.

This paper by Cooke et al. (2016) in Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries (26(1):123-133) highlights issues where there is a need for greater collaboration between IACUC members (including veterinary professionals) and field researchers which would provide more reasoned, rational and useful guidance to improve or maintain the welfare status of fishes used in field research while enabling researchers to pursue fundamental and applied questions related to the biology of fish in the field.


April 4, 2016

Guidelines to minimize disturbance of colonial-breeding waterbirds during research activities

The latest edition of Picoides, the newsletter for the Society of Canadian Ornithologists, provides guidance to minimize disturbance of colonial-breeding waterbirds during research activities (pg 10-12). Seabirds and waterbirds are particularly vulnerable to the effects of human disturbance. These guidelines are designed to increase awareness of the sensitivities of Canada’s seabird and waterbird colonies to disturbance, provide information on the applicable legal protection, and provide guidance on appropriate behaviour to follow when near breeding colonies of seabirds and waterbirds in order to avoid and minimize disturbance.

See also the section on birds in the Three Rs Microsite.


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Three Rs Searches Three Rs
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Three Rs Search Guide
Step-by-step strategy for Three Rs information searches

Animal Use Protocol Worksheet
Tool to organize Three Rs information for protocols

CCAC Reference Database
Database of scientific literature used in CCAC publications

Systematic Review
A method of synthesizing scientific evidence

Animal Index
Three Rs information organized by species

Testing Testing

Alternative Test Methods Table
Validated alternatives to conventional regulatory test methods